8.2 Cancers of the Lung and Bronchial Tubes


Lung cancer causes the most deaths of any cancer, and the most deadly lung cancer is small-cell lung cancer. It has a survival rate of about 6%. It accounts for at most 15% of all lung cancers. The most common cancer is adenocarcinoma. It is a form of non-small-cell lung cancer that starts in the mucus glands that keep the lungs from drying out. Wikipedia has some details[lung-wiki]:

Killing Cancer Cells

Evidence about the effectiveness of cannabis compounds against small-cell lung cancer is sparse. However, there is a good deal of in vitro evidence regarding effectiveness in killing adenocarcinoma and other non-small-cell cancer cells: CBD[cyt-inv-cbd], α-humulene[cyt-inv-hum], BCPO (β-caryophyllene oxide)[cyt-inv-hum], α-bisabolol[cyt-inv-isa], α-pinene[cyt-inv-pine], α-terpineol[cyt-inv-terp], d-limonene[cyt-inv-lim][cyt-inv-lin2], and apigenin[cyt-inv-api] are all useful.

Finally, ⍺-terpineol does inhibit small-cell lung cancer[cyt-inv-terp2].

Stopping Cell Replication

The CB2 agonist JHW-133 inhibits angiogenesis and, presumably, so does the stronger CB2 agonist BCP (β-caryophyllene)[ang-cary].

Inhibiting Invasion and Metastasis

THC has been shown to inhibit invasion and metastasis in a xenograft model of lung cancer[met-thc][met-thc2]. In vitro studies have shown that CBD inhibits invasion to surrounding tissue[inv-cbd1][inv-cbd2][inv-cbd3].

Suppressing Inflammatory Cytokines

Elevation of the IL-1β cytokine is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with lung cancer[il1]. IL-6 stimulates tumor progression in non-small-cell lung cancer cells[il6]. IL-17 promotes tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, invasiveness, metastasis, and immune system tolerance. It inhibits apoptosis[Wu_2016].

IL-8 promotes angiogenesis in bronchial cancer[Smith_1994].

Taming Inflammatory Cytokines
has some general ideas on lowering inflammatory cytokines.

Controlling Gene Expression

α-Terpineol inhibits small-cell lung cancer by lowering genes that control transcription of DNA, cytokine production, and cell survival[cyt-inv-terp2].

CBD significantly reduces the size and number of lung metastases by manipulating the Id1 gene[cyt-inv-terp2].


lung-wiki. Classification [of Lung cancer]. Article section. WikiProject Medicine. Wikipedia. Updated 2021 July 5.

cyt-inv-cbd. COX-2 and PPAR-γ Confer Cannabidiol-Induced Apoptosis of Human Lung Cancer Cells. Article. Robert Ramer, Katharina Heinemann, Jutta Merkord, et al. Mocular Cancer Therapeutics. Published 2013 January.

cyt-inv-hum. Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Antibiotic, and Cytotoxic Activities of Tanacetum vulgare L\. Essential Oil and Its Constituents [in vitro study]. Article. Héloïse Coté, Marie-Anne Boucher, André Pichette, Jean Legault. Medicines (Basel, Switzerland). Publised 2017 May 25.

cyt-inv-isa. Anticancer effects of α-Bisabolol in human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells are mediated via apoptosis induction, cell cycle arrest, inhibition of cell migration and invasion and upregulation of P13K/AKT signalling pathway. Article. Song Wu, Leilei Peng, Hongyang Sang, et al. Journal of B.U.O.N. 2018 September-October.

cyt-inv-pine. α-pinene triggers oxidative stress and related signaling pathways in A549 and HepG2 cells. Abstract. Kyong-Suk Jin, Min-Ji Bak, Mira Jun, et al. Food Science and Biotechnology. Published 2010 Octobr 31.

cyt-inv-terp. Evaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of bioflavors [in vitro study]. Abstract. J.L.Bicas, .A.Neri-Numa, A.L.T.G.Ruiz, et al. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2011 July.

cyt-inv-lim. d-limonene exhibits antitumor activity by inducing autophagy and apoptosis in lung cancer [xenograft study]. Article. Xiao Yu, Hongyan Lin, Yu Wang, et al. OncoTargets and Therapy. Published 2018 Apr 4.

cyt-inv-lin2. In vitro comparative analysis of antiproliferative activity of essential oil from mandarin peel and its principal component limonene. Abstract. Carlos A Manassero, Juan R Girotti, et al. Natural Product Rsearch. Published 2012 September 4.

cyt-inv-api. Apigenin potentiates TRAIL therapy of non-small cell lung cancer via upregulating DR4/DR5 expression in a p53-dependent manner [xenograft study]. Article. Minghui Chen, Xueshi Wang, Daolong Zha, et al. Scientific Reports. Published 2016 October 18.

cyt-inv-terp2. Alpha Terpineol: A Potential Anticancer Agent which Acts through Suppressing NF-κB Signalling [in vitro study]. Article. Saadia Bashir Hassan, Hala Gali-Muhtasib, et al. Anticancer Research. 2010 June.

ang-cary. Anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic effects of CB2R agonist (JWH-133) in non-small lung cancer cells (A549) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells: an in vitro investigation. Abstract. B Vidinský , P Gál, M Pilátová, Z Vidová, et al. Folia Biologica. Published 2012.

met-thc. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits epithelial growth factor-induced lung cancer cell migration in vitro as well as its growth and metastasis in vivo [xenograft study]. Article. A Preet, R K Gangu, J E Groopman. Oncogene. 2007 July 9.

inv-cbd1. Cannabidiol inhibits cancer cell invasion via upregulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1. Abstract. RobertRamer, Jutta Merkord, Helga Rohde, Burkhard Hinz. Biochemical Pharmacology. 2010 April.

inv-cbd2. Cannabidiol inhibits lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis via intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [xenograft study]. Article. Robert Ramer, Katharina Bublitz, Nadine Freimuth, et al. FASEB Journal. 2011 December 23.

inv-cbd3. Decrease of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 May Contribute to the Anti-Invasive Action of Cannabidiol on Human Lung Cancer Cells. Abstract. Robert Ramer, Anja Rohde, Jutta Merkord, et al. Pharmaceutical Research. 2010 July 29.

met-thc2. Inhibition of cancer cell invasion by cannabinoids via increased expression of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1. Abstract. Robert Ramer , Burkhard Hinz. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2008 January 2.

il1. Neutrophil-derived IL-1β impairs efficacy of NF-κB inhibitors against lung cancer [animal study]. Article. Allyson G McLoed, Taylor P Sherrill, Dong-Sheng Cheng, et al. Cell reports. 2016 June 16.

icon icons/globeicon.png. il6. Interaction between non-small-cell lung cancer cells and fibroblasts via enhancement of TGF-β signaling by IL-6. Abstract. A Abulaiti, Y Shintani, S Funaki et al. Lung Cancer. Published 2013 August 19.

Wu_2016. The Role of Interleukin-17 in Lung Cancer. Full text. Wu F, Xu J, Huang Q, et al. Mediators of inflammation. 2016 October 30.

Smith_1994. Inhibition of interleukin 8 attenuates angiogenesis in bronchogenic carcinoma. Abstract. Smith D R, Polverini P J, Kunkel S L, et al. Journal of experimental medicine. 1994 May 1.