α-Pinene is cytotoxic against human epithelial ovarian cancer. Cystadenocarcinoma is a malignant cyst derived from glandular epithelium. 1,8-Cineole, α-pinene, and β-pinene may induce apoptosis in Cystadenocarcinomas.
Cisplatin is used as a treatment for metastatic ovarian cancer after other treatment strategies have failed[Institute_2020]. CBD helps repair cisplatin-induced liver damage in mice[Pan_2008].
IL-1β promotes ovarian cancer[Schauer_2013]. Elevated IL-1β in ovarian cancer epithelial cells is inversely correlated with overall survival[Schauer_2013]. IL-6 has promoted tumor growth and angiogenesis in ovarian cancer in a clinical study[Schauer_2013]. Suppression of IL-6 had a beneficial effect[Coward_2012].
TNF-α stimulated the production of IL-17 and promoted tumor growth in a mouse model of ovarian cancer. Suppression of TNF-α via the drug infliximab substantially reduced IL-17 levels and responsiveness to IL-1 and IL-23[Charles_2009].
Malignant ovarian tumors produce significant amounts of TNF-α, which generates IL-6 and promotes tumor growth and proliferation. Without TNF-α, the same tumors become noninvasive and show high levels of apoptosis. These results are based on several human ovarian tumors grown in female mice[Kulbe_2007].
Wang_2012. Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L\. Essential Oil Compared to That of Its Main Components. Full text. Wei Wang, W, Nan Li N, Luo M, etn al. Molecules. Online 2012 March 5.
Sobral_2014. 1.25\. Alpha- and Beta-Pinene [in Antitumor Activity of Monoterpenes Found in Essential Oils]. Full text. Sobral M V, Xavier, T C, de Sousa D P. ScientificWorldJournal. Published 2014.
Institute_2020. Cisplatin. Article. Unattributed. National Cancer Institute. Updated 2020 October 7.
Pan_2008. Cannabidiol attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by decreasing oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation, and cell death. Full text. Pan H, Mukhopadhyay P, Rajesh M, et al. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. Online 2008 December 12.
Coward_2012. Interleukin-6 as a therapeutic target in human ovarian cancer. Full text. Coward J, Kulbe H, Chakravarty P, et al. Clinical cancer research. Online 2012 March 15.
Schauer_2013. Interleukin-1β Promotes Ovarian Tumorigenesis through a p53/NF-κB-Mediated Inflammatory Response in Stromal Fibroblasts. Full text. Schauer I G, Zhang J, Xing Z, et al. Neoplasia. 2013 April.
Charles_2009. The tumor-promoting actions of TNF-α involve TNFR1 and IL-17 in ovarian cancer in mice and humans. Full text. Charles K A, Kulbe, H Soper R, et al. The Journal of clinical investigation. Online 2009 October 1.
Kulbe_2007. The Inflammatory Cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Generates an Autocrine Tumor-Promoting Network in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Cells. Full text. Kulbe H, Thompson R, Wilson J L, et al. Cancer Reaearch. 2007 January 15.