8.12 Stomach Cancer


Killing Cancer Cells


β-caryophyllene oxide is cytotoxic against cell lines for stomach cancer[Jun_2011]. Additionally, β-caryophyllene oxide has improved the cytotoxicity for cancer cells of doxorubicin while decreasing its toxicity for normal cells[Ambro_2015].

d-Limonene, menthol, and linalool kill stomach cancer cells[Lu_2004][Lin+2005][Cherng_2007][Sobral_2014]. Apigenin is also cytotoxic[Wu_2005].

Preventing Angiogenesis

β-Eudesmol inhibits angiogenesis in human gastric cancer cells[Ma_2008].

Controlling Cytokines

IL-6 is elevated in stomach cancer. Its levels continue to rise as cancer progresses, promoting angiogenesis[Kim_2003][Huang_2994]. IL-22 is elevated in stomach cancer[Markota_2018]. TGF-β is elevated in stomach cancer and high levels indicate a poor prognosis for patients with advanced cancer[Saito_1999].

The Helicobacter Pylori bacteria increases the risk of gastric cancer by stimulating the production of TNF-α and IL-1β[Suganuma_2012][Shigematsu_2013].

For general ideas on controlling cytokines, see Taming Inflammatory Cytokines


Jun_2011. Cytotoxic Activity of β-Caryophyllene Oxide Isolated from
Jeju Guava (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) Leaf. Full text.  Jae Jun N J, Mosaddik A, Moon J Y, et al. Records of natural products. Published 2011.

Ambro_2015. The Influence of Sesquiterpenes from Myrica rubra on the Antiproliferative and Pro-Oxidative Effects of Doxorubicin and Its Accumulation in Cancer Cells. Full text. Ambrož M, Boušová I, Skarka A, et al. Molecules. Online 2015 August 21.

Lu_2004. Inhibition of growth and metastasis of human gastric cancer implanted in nude mice by d-limonene. Full text. Lu X-G, Zhan L-B, Feng B-A, et al. World journal of gastroenterology. Online 2004 July 15.

Lin+2005. (-)-Menthol inhibits DNA topoisomerases I, II alpha and beta and promotes NF-kappaB expression in human gastric cancer SNU-5 cells. Abstract. Lin J-P, Lu H-F, Lee J-H, et al. International Institute of Anticancer Research. Published 2005 May-June.

Cherng_2007. Chemopreventive effects of minor dietary constituents in common foods on human cancer cells. Abstract. Cherng J-M, Shieh D-E, Chiang W, et al. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry. Published 2007 June.

Sobral_2014. 1.29\. Linalool [in Antitumor Activity of Monoterpenes Found in Essential Oils]. Full text. Sobral M V, Xavier A L, Lima T C, de Sousa D P. ScientificWorldJournal. Published 2014.

Wu_2005. Inhibitory effects of apigenin on the growth of gastric carcinoma SGC-7901 cells. Abstract. Wu K, Yuan L-H, Xia W. World journal of gastroenterology. Published 2005 August 7.

Ma_2008. Beta-eudesmol suppresses tumour growth through inhibition of tumour neovascularisation and tumour cell proliferation. Abstract. Ma E-L, Li Y-C, Tsuneki H, et al. Journal of Asian natural products research. Published 2008 January-February.

Markota_2018. Targeting interleukin-22 for cancer therapy. Full text. Markota A, Endres S, Kobold S. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 2018 May 17.

Suganuma_2012. Human gastric cancer development with TNF-α-inducing protein secreted from Helicobacter pylori [literature review]. Abstract. Suganuma M, Watanabe T, Yamaguchi K, et al. Cancer letters. Online 2012 March 27.

Shigematsu_2013. Interleukin-1β induced by Helicobacter pylori infection enhances mouse gastric carcinogenesis. Abstract. Shigematsu Y, Niwa T, Rehnberg E, et al. Cancer letters. Online 2013 August 3.

Kim_2003. Elevated levels of circulating platelet microparticles, VEGF, IL-6 and RANTES in patients with gastric cancer: possible role of a metastasis predictor. Abstract. Kim H K, Song K S, Park Y S, et al. European journal of cancer. Published 2003 January.

Huang_2994. Interleukin-6 increases vascular endothelial growth factor and angiogenesis in gastric carcinoma. Abstract. Huang S-P, Wu M-S, Shun C-T, et al. Journal of biomedical science. Published 2004 July-August.

Saito_1999. The expression of transforming growth factor-beta1 is significantly correlated with the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and poor prognosis of patients with advanced gastric carcinoma. Abstract. Saito H, Tsujitani S, Oka S, et al. Cancer. 1999 October 15.