The compounds in the following list were chosen based on their prevalence in the Connecticut Medical Marijuana Registry[registry]. Information on which strains contain these various compounds is taken from the Registry and associated strain-name guides[guide-new][guide]. Additional information on specific compounds is, unless otherwise specified, taken from Wikipedia.
As of this writing, there have been no large-scale studies on the use of individual cannabis compounds. Information on cross reactions with other medications is lacking. Caveat emptor.
Naturally occurring cannabinoids are found only in the cannabis species, the one possible exception being β-Caryophyllene. Cannabis plants are classified as marijuana or hemp according to whether they contain significant amounts of THC.
Cannabidiol – CBD. Plentiful in heat-treated flowers of hemp and marijuana strains bred for high CBD content. CBD is largely free of adverse effects but has been known to cause diarrhea.
Cannabidiolic Acid – CBDA. Plentiful in the raw flowers of hemp and marijuana strains bred for high CBD content.
Cannabichromene – CBC. Moderate amounts in lemon skunk, Theraplant's 360X.
Cannabigerol – CBG. Moderate amounts in Sour Diesel, Theraplant's 360X, Lemon Skunk.
Cannabigerolic Acid – CBGA. Small amounts in Wedding Cake, Lemon Skunk.
Cannabinol – CBN. Small amounts in Theraplant's 360X, Lemon Skunk.
Δ8-Teahydrocannabinol – Δ8-THC. Trace amounts are found in most cannabis strains. It is mostly derived chemically from CBD and similar compounds. Δ8-THC is intoxicating but less so than Δ9-THC. It is legal at the Federal level.
Generally speaking, pure 100% terpenes may irritate the skin of those who are sensitive, and they tend to be lethal if they enter the airways. Reputable commercial products specify their potency, and reputable 100% products come with a warning and a suggested dilution, usually 1% for internal use.
Most terpenes have human uses — in cosmetics, as a flavoring in foods and beverages, and as scents in household cleaning products.
β-Caryophyllene – BCP. Isomers include trans-caryophyllene and (E)-Caryophyllene. BCP is plentiful in most cannabis strains. It is also found in cloves, hops, basil, oregano, black pepper, and the balm of Gilead. BCP is widely used as a flavoring agent. In moderation, it smells a bit like black pepper. It absorbs slowly when used topically (personal observation).
β-Caryophyllene Oxide – BCPO. Trace amounts occur in most marijuana strains. Also found in cloves, hops, basil, oregano, black pepper, and the balm of Gilead.
β-Myrcene. Plentiful in Blue Dream, Sour Diesel, Ace of Spades. Moderate amounts are found in Dutch Treat, Connecticut Pharmaceutical's Rubidex, Tickle Kush. It is also found in wild thyme, hops, mangoes, and cardamom. The FDA has banned myrcene's use as a food additive on the grounds that it is carcinogenic[myrcene-fda]. As a result, β-myrcene has been dropped from this work’s analyses.
β-Pinene. Plentiful in ACDC, Cold Creek Kush, Green Kush; moderate amounts in White Shark. It is also found in cumin, hops, cluster pine, and horsewood.
Geraniol (not be confused with geranial). Plentiful in Dutch Treat. Also found in citrus fruits, rose oil, palmarosa oil, and citronella oil.
d-Limonene, also known as (+)-Limonene , (R)-(+)-Limonene, and (+)-carvene. Benefits are largely attributable to metabolites such as perillyl alcohol and perillic acid. Moderate amounts in Sour Diesel, Wedding Cake. It is found mainly in citrus fruits. d-Limonene is the active ingredient in citrus degreasers; it can be a mild skin irritant. It is readily absorbed when used topically (personal observation).
Terpinolene, also known as δ-terpinene. Moderate amounts in Ace of Spades, Ghost Train. Also found in cumin and in the leaves of the melaleuca tree (tea tree).
α-Pinene. Moderate amounts in Green Kush. Also found in conifers, ironwort, and sage. Smells like pine if not too concentrated. It is readily absorbed when used topically (personal observation).
Phytol. Moderate amounts in Blue Dream, Sour Diesel. Also found in jasmine flowers, green tea, and wild lettuce. Small amounts are in virtually all plants as a decomposition product of chlorophyll.
α-Humulene , also known as α-caryophyllene. Small amounts in Wedding Cake, Thunderstruck, Green Kush, Pedro's Sweet Sativa, Connecticut Pharmaceuticals' Somnidex, and Lemon Skunk. Also found in hops, sage, ginseng, spearmint, and ginger.
Linalool. Small amounts in Wedding Cake. Also found in orange, lavender, and coriander.
Guaiol, also known as champacol. Small amounts in Wedding Cake. Also found in oil of guaiacum, cypress pine.
Ocimene. Small amounts in Connecticut Pharmaceuticals' Somnidex. Also found in mint, parsley, basil, mangoes, and orchids.
Nerolidol comes in two isomorphic forms, trans-nerolidol and cis-Nerolidol. Small amounts in San Fernando Valley. Also found in blossoms of the bitter orange tree and in ginger, jasmine, and lavender.
Terpineol. Isomers include α-terpineol , β-terpineol , γ-terpineol , and 4-terpineol (aka terpinen-4-ol ). Trace amounts in Wedding Cake. Also found in lilacs, lime oil, pine trees, eucalyptus, and the leaves of melaleuca trees.
Eucalyptol, also known as 1,8-cineole. Trace amounts in most marijuana strains. Also found in camphor, great basin sagebrush, and eucalyptus. It is readily absorbed when used topically (personal observation).
γ-Terpinene. Trace amounts in most marijuana strains. Also found in citrus fruits, coriander, cumin, and European centaury.
Borneol. Trace amounts in most marijuana strains. Also found in the essential oils of valerian, chamomile, and lavender.
β-Eudesmol. Trace amounts in most strains of marijuana. Also found in Cng zhú rhizomes, the warionia shrub, and the Japanese mountain yam.
Isopulegol. Trace amounts in most strains of marijuana. Also found in lemon balm, orange peel, corn mint, and peppermint.
p-Cymene. Trace amounts in some strains of marijuana. Also found in anise, coriander, cumin, thyme, mace, oregano, and eucalyptus.
Camphene. Trace amounts in most cannabis strains. Also found in dill, caraway, hyssop, and fennel.
Sabinene. Trace amounts in most marijuana strains. Also found in Norway spruce, black pepper, and nutmeg.
Menthol. Trace amounts in most strains. Also found in peppermint, corn mint, and spearmint.
Valencene. Trace amounts in most strains. Also found in Valencia oranges.
Apigenin is a flavonoid rather than a terpene. Trace amounts occur in most cannabis strains. Apigenin is also found in parsley, celery, celeriac, and chamomile tea.
The following compounds were not used in the analysis of compounds and conditions but have been included here for completeness: CBGA, β-pinene, β-myrcene, ocimene, isopulegol, p-cymene, camphene, sabinene, and α-phellandrene.
guide-new. Ct Medical Marijuana Strain Listing. Lexicon. Unattributed. Ct Medical Marijuana Critic. Undated.
myrcene-fda. FDA Removes 7 Synthetic Flavoring Substances from Food Additives List. Article. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. FDA. 2018 October 5.